Breast Cancer in Men: The Overlooked and Underdiagnosed

Breast Cancer in Men The Overlooked and Underdiagnosed - Blog Banner

Breast Cancer in Men: The Overlooked and Underdiagnosed

When we think of breast cancer, we often think of it as something only women get. But did you know that men can also develop breast cancer? This might come as a surprise to many. In this guide, we want to shed light on this hidden problem and provide information to help us better understand it.

Breast cancer in men is not talked about as much as it should be. This lack of awareness can lead to delays in diagnosis and treatment. But by learning more about it, we can take steps to change this and make sure everyone knows about the risks, symptoms, and what can be done to address this important health issue. Let’s explore breast cancer in men and work together to raise awareness and find solutions.

The Prevalence of Breast Cancer in Men

Breast cancer doesn’t discriminate based on gender, and understanding its prevalence in men is the first step in addressing this often overlooked issue. While it’s true that breast cancer is less common in men, it’s important to know that it can still happen. According to the American Cancer Society (ACS), in 2021, around 2,650 new cases of invasive breast cancer were diagnosed in men in the United States. Now, you might think that number is small compared to the 281,550 new cases estimated for women, but it’s still a significant number that should grab our attention.

The Risk Factors for Breast Cancer in Men

Understanding the risk factors associated with breast cancer in men is crucial for early detection and effective prevention strategies. Let’s take a closer look at these factors and explore how they contribute to the risk:

  • Age: One significant risk factor for breast cancer in men is age. It’s more commonly found in older men. As men age, their risk of developing breast cancer gradually increases. Regular check-ups and awareness of this risk can aid in early detection and timely treatment.
  • Family History: A family history of breast cancer can also play a role in elevating a man’s risk. This risk factor becomes even more significant when there is a history of breast cancer among close female relatives, such as a mother or sister. Keeping track of your family’s medical history is essential, as it can help healthcare providers assess your risk more accurately.
  • Genetic Mutations: Inherited gene mutations, particularly BRCA1 and BRCA2, are well-known risk factors for breast cancer. These mutations can increase the breast cancer risk not only in women but also in men. Genetic counseling and testing can provide valuable insights into your genetic risk, enabling you to make informed decisions about prevention and screening.
  • Radiation Exposure: If you’ve had radiation therapy to the chest area in the past, this can raise your risk of developing breast cancer later in life. It’s essential to communicate your medical history, including any past radiation treatments, with your healthcare provider to ensure appropriate monitoring and early detection.
  • Estrogen Levels: Elevated estrogen levels in men can increase the risk of breast cancer. Conditions like obesity and the use of certain medications can lead to higher estrogen levels. Maintaining a healthy lifestyle through regular exercise and a balanced diet can help mitigate this risk factor.

Recognizing the Symptoms of Breast Cancer in Men

Early detection is a critical factor in the successful treatment of breast cancer in men, just as it is in women. Being aware of the potential symptoms and changes in your body can make all the difference. Here are some key symptoms to watch out for:

A Lump or Swelling in the Breast or Under the Nipple

One of the most common signs of breast cancer in both men and women is the presence of a lump or swelling in the breast tissue or under the nipple. Importantly, these lumps are often painless. While a painless lump may not always mean cancer, it should never be ignored. Promptly seeking medical attention for evaluation and diagnosis is crucial to determine the cause and take appropriate action.

Nipple Changes

 Changes in the nipple can also be indicative of breast cancer. These changes might include nipple inversion (the nipple turning inward), nipple discharge (other than breast milk), or nipple redness. If you notice any of these alterations in your nipple appearance or function, it’s essential to consult a healthcare professional for further evaluation.

Breast Pain

Persistent breast pain can be concerning, though it’s important to note that it’s not always a direct sign of cancer. Many benign (non-cancerous) conditions can also cause breast pain. However, if you experience ongoing or unusual breast discomfort or pain, it should be evaluated by a medical expert to rule out any potential underlying issues.

Changes in the Skin

Changes in the skin on or around the breast can be subtle but significant indicators of breast cancer. These changes may include dimpling (skin pulling inward), puckering (skin appearing like the surface of an orange), or redness. These skin changes can result from the growth of cancerous cells and should be promptly assessed by a healthcare provider.

Diagnosis and Screening for Breast Cancer in Men

Diagnosing breast cancer in men can be challenging, primarily because screening isn’t as routine as it is for women. This lack of regular screening contributes to underdiagnosis. Nevertheless, it is crucial for men at higher risk to be proactive about their health and for healthcare providers to be vigilant when symptoms or risk factors are present.

Here’s an overview of the diagnostic tools and methods used when breast cancer is suspected in men:

  • Mammography: Mammograms, which are X-ray images of the breast tissue, are the most common screening tool for breast cancer in women. While less effective in men due to their smaller breast tissue, mammography can still be used when there are signs or symptoms of breast cancer.
  • Ultrasound: Ultrasound imaging uses sound waves to create images of the breast. It is particularly useful for evaluating breast lumps in both men and women, as it can help determine if a lump is filled with fluid (cyst) or solid (potentially cancerous).
  • Breast MRI: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can provide detailed images of the breast tissue. It is often used in combination with mammography and ultrasound to evaluate breast abnormalities or when there is a high suspicion of breast cancer.
  • Biopsy: The most definitive way to diagnose breast cancer in men is through a biopsy. During a biopsy, a small sample of tissue is taken from the suspicious area and examined under a microscope. This allows for a precise diagnosis and helps determine the type and stage of cancer.

Treatment Options for Breast Cancer in Men

Once a diagnosis is confirmed, treatment options for breast cancer in men are similar to those for women. The choice of treatment depends on factors such as the cancer’s stage, type, and the patient’s overall health. Here are common treatment modalities:

  • Surgery: Mastectomy, the removal of breast tissue, is often the primary surgical treatment for breast cancer in men. In some cases, a lumpectomy, which removes only the tumor and a margin of surrounding tissue, may be considered.
  • Radiation Therapy: Radiation therapy is used after surgery to destroy any remaining cancer cells and reduce the risk of recurrence. It involves targeted radiation to the affected area.
  • Chemotherapy: Systemic treatments like chemotherapy may be recommended based on the cancer’s stage, type, and other factors. Chemotherapy uses drugs to kill cancer cells throughout the body.
  • Hormone Therapy: If the breast cancer is hormone receptor-positive, hormone therapy may be prescribed. This treatment aims to block hormones that fuel the growth of hormone-sensitive tumors.
  • Targeted Therapy: Targeted therapies specifically target molecules involved in cancer growth. They are tailored to the genetic makeup of the cancer and are sometimes used in conjunction with other treatments.


Breast cancer in men is a reality that cannot be ignored. While it is less common, the impact on those affected can be significant. By understanding the risk factors, recognizing symptoms, and promoting early diagnosis and treatment, we can reduce the overlooked and underdiagnosed cases of breast cancer in men. Awareness, education, and regular check-ups are our most potent weapons in the fight against this disease. Together, we can ensure that breast cancer in men receives the attention it deserves, ultimately saving lives.